July 10, 2006
Green Roof Industry
Meets in Boston for Biggest Green Roof Conference Yet!
By Jennifer Sprout
spite of record rain downpours for five days and five nights, the 4th
Annual Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities Conference, Awards and
Tradeshow, held in Boston in May and co-hosted by the City of Boston and
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, was the most successful green roof
conference to date! More than 850 people participated in the
conference sessions, tradeshow exhibition, training courses and tours.
This constituted a growth rate of 25% over last year’s event in Washington,
D.C.! Clearly, the green roof movement is continuing to expand at an
impressive rate. As summed up by Dick Gillenwater, Carlisle SynTec,
Inc., “The 4th annual conference built on the growing success of the
past conferences. It offers a venue that is focused solely on this
unique roofing concept of living roofs with their many environmental
benefits. Those who attended the conference are there to learn and
understand the concept, how it is constructed, and how to maintain the
system for the long haul. Carlisle was glad to be apart of this effort to
educate the construction community on Roof Gardens.”
850 people participated in the conference sessions,
tradeshow exhibition, training courses and tours. This
constituted a growth rate of 25% over last year’s event in
Boston’s Mayor Thomas Menino
opened the conference with a Welcoming Reception for all delegates on the
tradeshow floor, and used the opportunity to announce that members of his
administration staff had been directed to review new and existing municipal
buildings for the incorporation of green roofs and also had requested that
City agencies develop an environmental monitoring system to document the
benefits of green roofs on storm water, air quality and urban heat island
effects. “Here in Boston, we are conscious that the decisions we make
today have lasting effects tomorrow,” Mayor Menino said. “And we are
implementing plans that reflect our respect for the environment and our
desire to become a leader in green building.”
During the course of two busy days, participants had the opportunity to
listen to more than 50 speakers addressing such topics as living walls and
vertical gardens; selecting plants for peak performance and functionality;
and the optimization of energy performance. One of the speaker
highlights included the dinner presentation by keynote speaker Dr. John
Todd. Dr. Todd addressed more than 120 delegates describing his living
machines, or ecological engines, for the treatment of wastes, and the
production of foods. Highlighting the works of his mentor, Dr. Malcolm
Wells, Dr. Todd inspired those who attended to individually work to make a
difference in our environment.
tradeshow hours with no competing sessions ensured that
everyone could network on the tradeshow floor and see many
of the products and services newly launched at the
conference without missing any speakers.
The tradeshow exhibition hours
were altered this year to allow delegates and exhibitors the opportunity to
enjoy all conference sessions. Specified tradeshow hours with no
competing sessions ensured that everyone could network on the tradeshow
floor and see many of the products and services newly launched at the
conference without missing any speakers. One of the conference
exhibitors, Doug Burry from rooflite™ commented on the tradeshow: “As
exhibitors, we were very pleased with the growth of the show in both size
and quality. It seems as if the show, from an exhibitor’s perspective, has
gone from vendors educating and answering basic questions on green roofs, to
now actually selling product. It is exciting to see the growth of the
industry. The uninterrupted hours on the show floor were a welcome
change.” The tradeshow provided a fair balance of national
manufacturers and suppliers as well as local consulting and horticultural
firms, and next year’s tradeshow will be structured in a similar manner.
flows through the Tradeshow floor.
A highlight of the conference
was our Green Roof Awards of Excellence Luncheon. Established in 2003
to recognize green roof projects that exhibit extraordinary leadership in
integrated design and implementation, the projects honoured this year
exemplified this mission. Seven awards were presented to residential,
institutional and commercial projects for both intensive and extensive
gardens. The Green Roof Awards of Excellence winners for intensive and
extensive gardens this year included Eastern Village, Silver Spring,
Maryland; Ballard Library, Seattle, Washington; Phillips Eco-Enterprise
Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Seapointe Village Deck Restoration, Wildwood
Crest, New Jersey; Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center,
Mashantucket, Connecticut; 601 Congress Street, Seaport District, Boston,
Massachusetts and 10th @ Hoyt Apartments, Portland, Oregon.
Beattie, Penn State University, receiving his Excellence in
Research Award from Nancy Somerville, Chair of the 2006
Awards of Excellence Judges Committee and Steven Peck,
President, Green Roofs for Healthy Cities.
A new award recognizing
Excellence in Research was established this year to honour pioneers in the
green roof industry. The first Research Award of Excellence was
presented to David Beattie, Pennsylvania State University. David is the
Founder and Director of the Penn State Center for Green Roof Research.
Established in 2000, the Center’s mission is to promote green roof research,
education and technology transfer in the northeastern United States.
Well known to everyone at the conference, Dave received a standing ovation
when presented with the Award.
Our one soggy note was the weather’s impact on the pre-scheduled local green
roof tours. However, many delegates braved the elements and had a chance to
see some spectacular projects including Harvard Square; Boston Common and
Public Gardens; and Kendall Square and MIT.
Bookending the conference were several new courses that are now part of our
burgeoning accreditation program -- four new training courses were
presented, several of which were sold-out. The ever-popular Design 101
– Introduction to Green Roof Design was filled for both sessions, and the
advanced Design and Implementation 201 had its inaugural debut to an
enthusiastic response. Half day sessions were presented on
Biodiversity, ASTM and FLL Standards and Policy Development. Positive
delegate reaction to these new workshops will ensure the return of the
workshops at our next conference.
Committee Chairs hosted meetings for members on Corporate Membership;
Research and Policy. All corporate and individual members were invited
to participate and discuss potential research projects, policy development
in municipalities throughout North America and overall industry development.
Many members networked these meetings and have provided to us at GRHC new
ideas to explore on behalf of the membership and industry. Peter
D’Antonio, Sarnafil Roofing, and member of the Corporate Members Committee,
emphasized the importance of these networking opportunities: “The
technology sharing at this event is vitally important to develop in North
America in this evolving field. All involved in green design, LEED,
municipal policy and planning, and concerns with heat island mitigation
issues should attend. An excellent program and networking opportunity!”
The culmination of this event was the result of hours of work and support
from so many individuals on different committees volunteering their time and
expertise for the past year. While too many to name individually, I
would like to recognize the committees: Boston Local Host Committee
(Co-Chaired by Peter Lowitt, Devens Enterprise Commission and Bryan
Glascock, City of Boston, Department of the Environment); 2006 Awards of
Excellence Judges; Speaker Selection Committee; GRHC Policy Committee; GRHC
Research Committee; GRHC Corporate Members Committee; GRHC Training
Committee; and GRHC Training Peer Reviewers. Thank you – your commitment is
recognized and appreciated.
Of course, our corporate sponsors were critical in ensuring the successful
presentation of the conference, and recognition must also be given to The
City of Boston; American Society of Landscape Architects; Camp, Dresser and
McKee (CDM); Skanksa; American Hydrotech; Colbond; Eco-Structure;
Environment Canada; Environmental Design and Construction; McGuire Woods;
Garick/Rooflite; Sarnafil; Soprema and the US General Services Administration
(GSA). Our partnerships with more than 30 varied associations – national,
regional and local – ensured that we got the word out to you and their
on-going support of our programs is most appreciated.
Plans are already underway for the 2007 5th Annual Greening Rooftops for
Sustainable Communities Conference, Awards and Tradeshow in Minneapolis.
Enthusiasm is high and numerous local committee members have begun the plans
of making next year’s event our biggest yet! I hope to see you in
Minneapolis in May.
Jennifer Sprout is Director, Conferences and Special Events, Green
Roofs for Healthy Cities and may be reached at:
Utilization Goes Through the Roof
Center for Green Roof Research
at Penn State University uses compost in its media studies and plans to
explore microbial communities.
By Drew Mather
in the March 2006 issue of
magazine, the Journal of Composting
& Organics Recycling. Reprinted with Permission.
for Green Roof Research at Penn State University uses
compost in its media studies and plans to explore microbial
the Penn State Center for Green Roof Research in University Park,
Pennsylvania, horticulturalists, plant physiologists and agricultural
engineers are collaborating to study the many aspects of green roofs and
their effects on the environment. From looking at broad questions
of how green roofs mitigate storm water runoff to specifics in terms of
modeling the evapotranspiration rates in these systems, the Center is
dedicated to providing scientific answers for this fast growing sector
of green technology. Fortunately for compost producers, the use of
organic materials in this technology is proving essential.
A green roof can be either intensive or extensive based on the degree of
maintenance required to grow plants in specially formulated green roof
manufactured soils or “media” as it is often referred to in the
industry. Intensive green roofs require a high degree of
maintenance and can be thought of as “roof gardens.” Media depths
range from approximately 18 to 213 cm (7-84 inches) depending on the
plant species used. Typically media depth must be greater than 25
cm (approximately 10 inches) to support an array of plant life in these
systems. The additional roof load capacity needed to support such
media depths is between 300 - 1,500 kg/m2 (approximately 60-300 lbs/ft2
or psf; pounds per square foot) depending on a number of factors such as
the slope of the roof, type of manufactured soil used, whether or not
irrigation systems are installed, and human traffic calculations.
For comparison, typical single family homes in mild climate regions of
the U.S. have additional roof load capacities between 10 and 30 psf.
An intensive green roof system would not be appropriate for these types
of roof structures without significant structural adjustments.
In contrast, an extensive green roof system typically requires a media
depth of only 5 to 20 cm (approximately 2-8 inches) and is more
functional in nature compared to an intensive green roof system;
functional in the sense that its primary focus is for implementation as
a Best Management Practice or BMP for storm water management.
Additional roof load capacity needed for an extensive green roof system
varies between 90 and 250 kg/m2 (approximately 16-50 psf) depending on
the same factors as outlined above for intensive systems). The
studies carried out at Penn State all involve extensive green roof
systems. It should be noted that load capacity ranges are
generalized. Each green roof installation is unique and structural
engineers should be consulted for the final load and design
History of the Center
The Center for Green Roof Research at Penn State began as an idea formed
during a European trip that the Center's former director, Dr. David
Beattie, an associate professor of Horticulture, took in the late 1990s.
At the time, green roofs were not well known in North America despite
over a century of usage in several European countries, mainly Germany.
A car bumper manufacturer based in Malvern, Pennsylvania provided a much
needed catalyst. JSP International Inc. approached Beattie and his
colleague, current Center Director Dr. Robert Berghage, also an
associate professor in horticulture, about additional markets for their
porous expanded polypropylene or PEPP compressed plastic mats.
One possible application was as a layer in a built up green roof.
Beattie and Berghage looked at two different species of plants, a sedum
and a grass, planted in various mixtures of manufactured soils using the
PEPP. Comparing temperatures on a conventional plastic sheeted
roof, a gravel covered roof, and a green roof, they discovered just how
well the green roof system did in terms of mitigating heat effects.
During the summer of 2000 with an ambient temperature of 88°F, the
temperature in the green roof media was 82°F. The plastic sheeting
and gravel roof measured 140 and 118°F, respectively. In terms of the
plant species used in the green roof system, sedum performed better than
grass in terms of its ability to weather temperature and moisture
extremes. Sedum, a relative of the cactus, grows low to the ground
and doesn't shed much dead plant material. It also requires very
little in the way of maintenance and nutrient requirements.
Because of the success of the initial partnership with JSP International
Inc., the Center was able to obtain funding from other sources such as
American Hydrotech and Carlisle SynTec, two green roof industry giants,
and state and federal sources like the Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA), respectively. The Center officially began in 2001
with a research site at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research
Center in Rock Springs, PA, and a mission to demonstrate and promote
green roof research, education, and technology transfer in the
Northeastern U.S. The Center has become a leader in studying
various media suitable for growing extensive green roof plants as well
as providing quantifiable data necessary to answer critical questions
about the effectiveness of green roofs in mitigating runoff from storm
Recent Research Projects
One of the first studies carried out at the Center, and part of a
master's thesis project by Julia (DeNardo) Hunt, a former graduate
student in Agricultural and Biological Engineering (ABE), was an
investigation into the mitigation effects green roofs have on storm
water runoff. Dr. Albert Jarrett, a professor of Agricultural
Engineering, was DeNardo's major advisor and supervised the study along
with Beattie and Berghage. The research quantified the importance
of green roofs in attenuating or reducing runoff. According to
Jarrett, “The benefits of green roofs in attenuating storm water runoff
are clearest if one looks at four things: 1) runoff volume reduction, 2)
peak runoff rate reduction, 3) overall runoff delay, and 4) peak runoff
delay in these systems.” To look at these four variables, six
buildings (4.65 m2; 48 ft2) were constructed; three with extensive green
roof systems and three with conventional, standard asphalt roofs both
with roof slopes of 1:12 (Figure 1).
Building layout and schematic cross section of DeNardo study
at Center for Green Roof Research (DeNardo, 2003).
Each extensive green roof system consisted of a waterproof membrane and
root barrier, a drainage layer, growth media, and vegetation (Figure 2).
The growth media had a depth of 7.8 cm (approximately 3 in.) and
consisted of 12.5 percent sphagnum peat moss, 12.5 percent coir (coconut
fiber), 15 percent perlite, and 60 percent hydrolite for a 75 percent
mineral or inorganic material to 25 percent organic material ratio
(v/v). Above the growth media was a 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick layer of
PEPP into which vegetation (Sedum spurium) was transplanted.
General profile of an extensive green roof system (DeNardo,
The buildings at the Center for Green Roof Research have their own storm
water collection systems installed complete with gutters, downspouts,
and collection barrels. The first event occurred on October 25,
2002, producing a cumulative rainfall total of 2.39 cm (.94 in).
Green roof runoff total measured 1.93 cm (.76 in) for a runoff volume
reduction of 0.46 cm (0.18 in) or 19 percent. The maximum rainfall
intensity was measured at 6.6 mm/hr (0.26 in/hr) while the maximum
runoff rate from the green roof was 4.1 mm/hr (0.16 in/hr) for an
intensity reduction of 38 percent. In terms of delays, runoff from
the green roof took 4 hours to begin and 1 hour from the time peak
rainfall intensity was recorded to the time peak runoff occurred.
Evidence such as this gives storm water engineers valuable information
in planning storm water infrastructure for urban and suburban areas.
Extra time to absolve rainfall events in these areas is critical to
managing water quality and adds to the attractiveness of using green
roof technology as a Best Management Practice or BMP in construction.
systems include gutters, downspouts and collection barrels.
Other key findings from DeNardo's study were: 1) green roofs retained on
average 6.5 mm (.26 in.) or approximately 45 percent of total rainfall
during the period of study (two months), 2) peak runoff rates averaged
2.4 mm/hr (.09 in/hr) or 56 percent of the peak rainfall intensity, and
3) runoff from green roofs was delayed an average of 5.7 hours.
Jarrett has since expanded on DeNardo's work developing models for the
way green roofs respond in two typical storm water scenarios: extreme
storm events and cumulative annual rainfall. “Understanding how
green roofs can help us manage storm water begins by looking closely at
these additional elements,” Jarrett comments. Two-year (2.6
in/day) and 100-year (5.3 in/day) extreme rain events were simulated.
In addition, Jarrett used weather data from State College, PA for a 27
year period (1976 to 2003) to simulate how well a green roof would
reduce the cumulative annual rainfall (mean annual rainfall = 40.3
inches). Results of Jarrett's modeling work showed that with a 2
year storm event in July with 5 dry days prior to the storm, green roofs
could reduce the peak intensity of the runoff by 85 percent (compared to
no green roof) and the volume of runoff by 61 percent. The 100
year rain event also in July and also with 5 dry days prior could reduce
peak intensity of runoff by 60 percent and volume by 30 percent.
Numbers such as these are the lifeblood of making technologies such as
green roofs an attractive alternative to conventional storm water
Other studies have followed and helped answer other critical research
questions. Berghage and Beattie were interested in media depths
and how different green roof plants might respond in these systems with
varying drought situations. Christine Thuring, a former graduate
student in the Department of Horticulture, with both Beattie and
Berghage acting as her coadvisors, used this interest as part of her
master's thesis project to investigate a suite of popular green roof
plants grown in different types of media at varying depths and in
different drought regimes. As mentioned above, plants in an
extensive green roof system can be exposed to extreme temperatures and
moisture levels. As extensive green roof systems are less deep than
intensive systems, there is a tradeoff between using deeper media to
conserve plant available water during these extremes and adding weight
to the roof structure and hence cost to the project. Thuring's
project looked at how five different plant species (Sedum album, S.
sexangulare, Delosperma nubigenum, Dianthus deltoides, and Petrorhagia
saxifraga) responded (when grown) in three different depths (3, 6, and
12 cm) of two different media (expanded shale and clay) in two different
types of drought situations responded.
Switch to Compost
The growth media for Thuring's study consisted of either 85 percent (by
volume) expanded clay or shale as the mineral component and 15 percent
(by volume) pelletized spent mushroom compost from Laurel Valley Soils
in Avondale, PA as the organic component. The switch to composted
organic material from sphagnum peat moss and coir fiber in the previous
study was made to make use of a recycled waste product, spent mushroom
compost, and promote sustainability issues in the region. Thuring
adds that “compost usage in green roof media from a sustainability
perspective makes a lot of sense and should be integrally tied to the
makeup of green roof media mixes. Specifically, research in the
area of water retention and the decomposition process by different
composts as potential components of green roof media would be extremely
beneficial.” Echoing Thuring's comments, Charles Friedrich, a
licensed landscape architect for Carolina Stalite Company, in a paper
presented at the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities in
Washington, D.C. last year, stated that compost “is a preferred source
for the organic component in green roof system media because of its high
nutrient and microbial count, and it is politically correct because of
its recycling value.” However, he adds, “Care must be taken when
selecting the source of compost; proper stability/maturity, particle
size, and feedstock source of the product should be considered.”
The two inorganic substrates in Thuring's study were used because of
their popularity in North American green roofs and do not reflect the
Center's promotion of one over the other. Thuring notes that
“locally available inorganic materials from regional tile or brick
manufacturers can minimize transportation costs and provide ecologically
sound choices in terms of green roof media.” All experiments were
carried out in a 4 x 30 m polyethylene greenhouse tunnel with all media
placed in propagation flats modified to achieve the desired depth
requirements. Air circulation, temperature, and irrigation were
monitored and regulated throughout the study.
Key findings from Thuring's study were: 1) media depth most affected the
growth of all plants, 2) herbaceous species did not survive in 3 cm (1.2
in) depths of either media, nor in 6cm expanded shale when subjected to
drought conditions, 3) plant growth under drought was better in the clay
compared to the shale, and 4), irrigation in the first weeks after
planting is beneficial for plant establishment and performance.
Indeed, initial irrigation proved vital for the herbaceous taxa and
valuable for long-term performance by the succulents (not including S.
album). In terms of design implications, Thuring's study showed
that media depth and type, as well as water availability, are important
considerations when selecting species for extensive green roofs.
Succulent species performed well in 6 cm (2.4 in.) media, but always did
better in clay versus shale. As for herbaceous species, green roof
media depth should exceed 6 cm (2.4 in.), however more research on the
use of such plants, especially native species, is needed.
Current and Future Studies at the Center
Dr. Shazia Husain, a plant physiologist and visiting doctoral scholar,
has begun experiments that expand upon the knowledge gained by previous
research described above. Specifically, Husain has three areas of
focus; elucidating mechanisms of evapotranspiration in green roof
plants, determining plant responses to various mixtures and particle
sizes of inorganic substrates and compost, and investigating potential
ozone effects on green roof plants. Using lysimeters with
temperature and moisture sensors attached, Husain is working to quantify
evapotranspiration rates in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism plants or CAM
for short. Husain states, “These plants, mostly succulents, have
stomates that open and close during different times of the day to
maximize water retention and minimize water loss. Knowing the
mechanisms that are involved with these CAM plants can help scientists
understand more about which plants are best suited for green roof
systems and how they function to attenuate storm water runoff.” In
addition to studying the CAM mechanisms in these systems, acid buffering
capacity, pH, electrical conductance, and nitrate levels are being
As there are numerous inorganic substances marketed for use in green
roof media with equally numerous claims for their respective products'
superiority, Husain is performing work on various expanded shales and
clays of differing particle sizes. Additionally, Husain states,
“Mixing these inorganics with organics such as compost is critical to
rapid establishment of green roof vegetation. Approximately 20 percent
organic material and 80 percent inorganic appears to be the best mix in
terms of plant growth response to date,” Husain continues, but she
cautions against hard and fast volumetric percentage recommendations.
“Each system is unique and the goal of each green roof system must be
Husain is also working on the effects of ozone on green roof plants.
While largely an unknown area of research in terms of green roofs,
Husain hopes to build upon what is known about ozone formation and apply
it to this “green” technology. According to the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), ozone occurs in urban areas where expansive
concrete, lack of vegetation, and fossil fuel burning are prevalent
contributing to a ground level formation of ozone and localized
temperature increases known as “heat islands." Heat islands can
affect vegetation growing in urban areas interfering with plants'
abilities to grow and store food. The use of green roof technology
has been suggested as a way to mitigate the effects of heat islands in
metropolitan cities, but the mechanisms involved in how green roofs do
this are still not completely understood.
Ozone (O3) is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It's found in
two layers of the atmosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. In
the stratosphere, ozone provides a protective layer shielding the Earth
from ultraviolet radiation's potentially harmful health effects.
At ground level (the troposphere), ozone is a pollutant and contributes
to the formation of smog (from
Husain has proposed a number of experiments to look at the extreme
effects of ozone on green roof plants to better understand how
atmospheric conditions can be benefited by as well as cause harm to
green roof systems.
In terms of future studies at the Center, a recent PhD candidate in
Horticulture with experience performing bioremediation projects around
the world has expressed interest in investigating the microbial
community assemblages in green roof media. Nutrient cycling issues
as well as the implications for green roofs to act as potential
pollution treatment systems are anticipated as areas of exploration.
The Center just received additional funding from American Hydrotech in
September of 2005. This funding has enabled the Center to
effectively double its data gathering capacity at the Rock Springs
research site. Known as the HB (Hydrotech Building), its roof now
boasts two 1:12 slopes, one facing north and the other south, with an
effective roof area of 27.9 m2 (288 ft2), equal to all of the original
six buildings' roof areas combined.
In the final analysis according to Berghage, “Green roofs are an
excellent technology for use in rural, suburban, and urban areas where
attenuating storm water runoff is critical. Green roofs are
aesthetically pleasing, and there is strong evidence that they
effectively mitigate storm water runoff and heat island effects in large
metropolitan areas.” But, Berghage adds, “in the U.S., regulatory
agencies are sometimes slow to adapting new technologies and 'hard
numbers' are necessary to make these same regulatory agencies take
notice. Quantity right now in terms of how much green roofs can
store and delay storm water and storm water runoff, respectively, is the
driver for research in this area for the foreseeable future.”
The Center for Green Roof Research has come far in its short five year
history. From an idea that started across the Atlantic to the
reality of a research center located in central Pennsylvania, scientific
curiosity is a powerful force. Thankfully, with scientists like
Beattie and Berghage, who carried out the first experiments at the
Center before it was officially called a “Center,” their collective
curiosity appears to have been in large supply. And with
engineering expertise from Jarrett, “hard numbers” were generated early
to provide the quantification necessary to show green roofs could
adequately mitigate storm water runoff. Graduate students have
also proven to be an essential part of the Center's success with
DeNardo, Thuring, and Rezaei answering essential and fundamental
questions about this relatively new green technology in their theses.
Husain's role as a plant physiologist at the Center will undoubtedly
shed more light on the mechanisms of how plants in these systems work to
slow storm water runoff as well as other benefits. The Center
appears to be on a mission with a team of scientists dedicated to
generating results that are going through the roof.
Drew Mather is currently working for the USDA's Natural Resources
Conservation Service as a Soil Scientist in Southwestern Wyoming.
Drew graduated from Penn State in 2005 with a Master of Science in Soil
Science; his research dealt with organic matter decomposition in
composting and vermicomposting systems.
Contact Drew Mather via e-mail at:
Publisher's Note: Learn more about the Penn State
Center for Green Roof Research in the
Greenroof Projects Database, and
visit their website
here. Read about Christine Thuring, our Student Editor,
and her studies at Penn State here.
Past Guest Feature Articles:
Green Roofs - By Jennifer Appel, ASLA, Registered Landscape Architect and Licensed Irrigator
- National Landscape
Architecture Month - By Dennis Carmichael, FASLA,
President, American Society of Landscape Architects
profit frontier for green roof companies is…FOOD FROM THE ROOF -
By Geoff Wilson, President of the
Urban Agriculture Network – Western Pacific, and Convenor of Green Roofs for
Healthy Australian Cities
A Bold Plan for New
Orleans - By Alex Wilson and the Editors of
Environmental Building News
German Ecology and
a Regenerative Design Tour - By Roland
Oehme, Landscape Architect
The World Green
Roof Congress & Green Roof Week,
Basel, Switzerland 2005 - By
Dr. Stephan Brenneisen
Shouting from the Rooftops! Chicago’s Green Champions Share Techniques for Growing More Green Roofs on More Buildings
- By Vuk Vujovic and Douglas J. Ogurek, Architects
april - At Night All Cows are Black, or In the Land of the Blind the One-Eyed Man is King - By Patrick Carey, Architect
march - The Filter, Drain, and Water Holding Components of Green Roof Design - By Allan Wingfield, AIA
Replacing the Roof on Your Facility?
How to Get What You Paid for and Avoid Unexpected Problems and Cost -
By Ken Apicella, Project Manager
january - Horticulture Therapy: Rooftop Garden Creates An Oasis For Wellness & Rehabilitation - By Ed Jarger, Regional Greenroof Product Manager
december - Birds on a Cool Green Roof ~ Can the roof of Chicago's City Hall take urban nature to a higher level? - By Katherine Millett, Freelance Writer
november - A New Independent Green Roof Organisation for the UK - By Dusty Gedge, Greenroof Consultant
october - The GaLaBau 2004: 16th International Fair for Urban Green and Open Spaces in Nuremberg, Germany, September 15-18 - By Janet Faust, Environmental Horticulturalist & Greenroof Product Manager
The Times They are A-Changing: Trends and Challenges for the Green Roof Market of the Future -
By Wolfgang Ansel, DDV, IGRC
Growing Green Roofs in the United States -
By Wendy Willow Wark, Green Roof Consultant
Don’t Call It Dirt! -
By Chuck Friedrich, RLA, ASLA, Landscape Architect and
Growth Media Consultant
How to Build an Intensive Residential Green Roof -
By Jennifer Appel,
Registered Landscape Architect and Licensed Irrigator
may - Greenroofs - From the Classroom to the Boardroom - By Janet Faust, Environmental Horticulturalist & Greenroof Product Manager
april - Green Roof Demonstration and Research Center – Developing Further - By Louise Lundberg,
International Green Roof Institute, Malmö, Sweden
A Cool Roof in a Hot City: The Southeast's First Municipal Greenroof -
By Benjamin Taube and Janet Ward,
Atlanta City Hall, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
When Mosses Recreate the Landscape on the Roof -
By Michel R. Chiaffredo,
MCK Environnement & BRYOTEC Technology
january - 2004 Will Be A Year of Laying the Foundations for Unprecedented Growth in the Green Roof Industry -
By Steven Peck,
Green Roofs for Healthy Cities
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