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Please note that some of's internet links continue to remain active; however, the Publisher's intent for the original Bibliography (1999) was simply to post the source for each particular reference within our website content, and does not guarantee a current working web link.

Additionally, make sure to visit ResearchLinks, where among other resources you will find info about the Green Roofs for Healthy Cities' Research Committee.  GRHC maintains a BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GREEN ROOF ARTICLES IN ENGLISH (PDF updated 4-16-06), which contains peer reviewed scientific journal articles, books, proceedings from meetings, and other reports.


ABC, "Blacktops Go Green - City Buildings Donning Green Tops to Reduce Warming," by Amanda Onion (July 5, 2002).  The ABC (ABC News Internet Ventures) reporter highlights the City of Chicago's City Hall Greenroof and how it is successfully reducing surface temperatures.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Atlantans looking up to chill out," by Reagan Walker (July 3, 2003): Living. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution describes how rooftop amenities are in increasing demand in metro Atlanta - The HauStudio greenroof project, designed by Linda Velazquez, is highlighted.  Read the story at NEWS LINKS., "In the hunt for springtime?  The Southeastern Flower Show is hope chest of hidden treasure," by Danny C. Flanders (February 22, 2002). The Living Review section of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution describes highlights of the 2002 Southeastern Flower Show, and talks about the Atlanta Botanical Garden's Greenroof display.   Available under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Gardening in the sky - New twin towers' rooftop retreat rises to the challenge of going green, high up" by Danny C. Flanders (July 3, 2003): Living.  The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Staff writer addresses the special concerns of creating gardens in the sky, in particular the new Metropolis, a condo in Midtown Atlanta, set atop a parking garage.,  "Roof might take root on Atlanta's City Hall," by Kevin Duffy (May 27, 2002). The Metro section of the Atlanta Journal-Constitution talks about plans for the City of Atlanta's interest in building green by installing a greenroof at City Hall.  Read the online article under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Green Roof Retrofit," by ArchitectureWeek Staff (April 9, 2003) Building Department: B1.  "The 1925 art deco-style Montgomery Ward Catalog Building in Baltimore, Maryland has just undergone a rehabilitation. The adaptive reuse project by DMJMH+N, an architecture/ engineering firm in Washington D.C., restored the facade of the landmark building and installed a 30,000-square foot (2800-square-meter) "green" roof."  Ed Snodgrass of Green Roof Plants supplied the low growing Alpine plants.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS., "Greening Rooftops," by ArchitectureWeek Staff (June 25, 2003): News.  The Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities 2003 Conference is highlighted along with the six winners of The Green Roof Awards of Excellence presented at the Conference Dinner Gala.  See photos and read about it at NEWS LINKS., "City of Seattle Adopts LEED Rating System," by Gregory Raho (March 28, 2001).  Access Architectural Record's online article by a Cornell University student from NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Green Roofs Can Reduce Stormwater Pollution," by Deborah Snoonian, P.E. (February 7, 2001).  Read this short article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of my website., "Vegetation Systems Atop Buildings Yield Multiple Environmental Benefits," by Nancy Solomon, AIA (March 2003) Building Science: Continuing Education: 149-156.  Ms. Solomon presents learning objectives for AIA Continuing Education and explores how this "roofing technology developed in Germany is starting to take root in North America."   Access the net article under NEWS LINKS or see the hard copy of the March 2003 Architectural Record magazine., "Green is Good: Tokyo leaves rooftop lawns to grow it alone," by Asahi Shimbun (July 8, 2003): English: National News.  Tokyo officials are experimenting with rooftop gardens that require no maintenance using short grass turf and sedum - read the story under NEWS LINKS.

Barnett, Michael.  "Zoo Atlanta."  Landscape Architect & Specifier News (November 1997): 84.  The original responsible landscape architect and Curator of Horticulture at Zoo Atlanta writes about the new Action Resource Center and its living roof.,  "Green roof solution to lost habitats," by BBC News UK Staff (July 8, 2003): UK News.  According to English Nature - a government agency that champions the conservation of wildlife and geology throughout England - a solution to the problem of lost urban wildlife habitats could be found right above our heads, and examples are shown from London and surrounding areas of growing greenroof interest and projects.  Read the article under NEWS LINKS.

Beaudry, John, personal communications, June 2000.  John was the original Chicago City Hall Greenroof Project Coordinator, and provided a project write up for the Green Roof Infrastructure Workshop we all attended in June, 2000 in Toronto.

Bender, Steve, Editor.  The Southern Living Garden Book.  Birmingham: Oxmoor House, Inc., 1998.  Here's a beautifully illustrated 512-page comprehensive plant reference for gardens of the south.

Bookman, Jay.  “Water, Water Everywhere; But is it Pure?”  The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (April 12, 1999): E3.  The associate editor of the Constitution’s editorial pages examines the Atlanta region’s critical water supply and quality issues.

The British Council for Offices and the Corporation of London, "Green Roofs Advice Note." June, 2003.  This highly informative Advice Note was created with assistance from the City of London Biodiversity Strategy.  The 12-page PDF can be accessed under How To's or NEWS LINKS.

Brooke, James.  "'Heat Island Tokyo' Is in Global Warming's Vanguard."  The New York Times, On The Web, (August 13, 2002): International/Asia Section.  The author speaks to an environmental director, a professor of climatology, and other national researchers in Japan concerning Tokyo's rising urban heat island problems.  Read the story in NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Brown, Lane Harvey.  "Green roofs a growing technology in U.S. cities - Baltimore among towns plotting gardens overhead."  The Baltimore Sun (May 26,2002): Telegraph, 1A.  Farmer and greenroof plant expert Ed Snodgrass is interviewed and Baltimore area greenroof project plans are explored.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Burke, Kevin, personal communications, March 1999. E-mail, photos and documentation.  Kevin was the Project Manager at William McDonough + Partners overseeing the Gap Headquarters in San Bruno, near San Francisco.

BusinessWeek Online, "The BW/Architectural Record Awards," by Bruce Nussbaum, Special Report (November 3, 2003).  Once a year, BusinessWeek joins with Architectural Record, a sister publication at The McGraw-Hill (MHP) Companies, to run an international contest that rewards distinguished architecture for its ability to meet serious business goals; a greenroof atop the Gannett Headquarters in McLean, VA is one of the winners - see NEWS LINKS., "First green roof on trial at Punggol multi-storey carpark," by Bridgette See (November 6, 2003): Singapore News.  Costing $500,000, the year-long trial will test if greenroofs can be built at affordable rates and with minimal maintenance; drought-resistant and low maintenance plant species are grown on the first greenroof plots in Singapore.  See NEWS LINKS.

Cheney, Colin.  "Seeking Support for Green Roofs."  Metropolis Magazine (December 16, 2002):  Urban Journal.  Colin Cheney is New York City's Earth Pledge’s Green Roof Initiative Coordinator, and writes about their latest workshop, and how future greenroof construction support may include tax credits, building incentives, regulation, and direct grants. A Green Roofs Task Force was formed to further explore policy incentives for green development.  Read the story on NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Builders see red over green roofs," by Alby Gallun & Greg Hinz (February 3, 2003).  The Crain's Chicago Business story focuses on how some developers think the City of Chicago's new ecological ordinance regarding greenroofs will be costly and appear too pushy.   Chicago's Department of the Environment says the Chicago City Hall greenroof saves $4,000 a year on energy costs, and currently, several other area greenroof projects are currently being developed.  See NEWS LINKS for the entire article.,  "Conference green with envy - City Hall rooftop garden grows a fan club,"  by Sabrina L. Miller (June 2, 2003): News.  Originally published June 1, 2003, the Tribune staff reporter highlights the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities 2003 - the First North American Green Roof Conference, Awards & Trade Show held in Chicago on May 28-29 2003 in The Chicago Tribune - Online Edition.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS., "Top Soil - The City's Push for 'Green Roofs' is Beginning to Take Root," by Katherine Millett (August 17, 2003): News: Features.  The Chicago Tribune - Online Edition reports on the Sachs family residence with a garage-top greenroof by GreenTech, and other Chicago area greenroof projects.  See NEWS LINKS for the complete story., "Green Roofs," by Wayne Roberts (January 23, 2003).  Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture, this Urban Agriculture Notes article speaks about Toronto's continuing efforts to green rooftops through research and demonstration projects.   The author writes, "Toronto City Hall offered up the garden plots on its third floor podium roof, built by companies backing the Green Roofs for Healthy Cities coalition, for a case study by the Institute for Research in Construction, a branch of the Ottawa-based National Research Council."  Read the entire story under NEWS LINKS., "Green rooftop technology saves energy, cools air," by Environmental News Network Staff (January 1, 2001).  Access the complete article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of my website., "In-Depth Special: City Limits; Urban hot spots, New York, Atlanta, and Salt Lake City, United States," (October 28, 2000).  Access the complete article regarding urban heat island studies of these three U.S. cities from the Ecological section of Environmental Advantages.

Cohen, Billie and TONY Staff.  "Secret gardens: Discover the hidden worlds above NYC, Above and beyond." Time Out New York (August 28-September 4, 2003) Issue 413: Features.  Private rooftops, roof views and a few greenroofs are briefly highlighted in New York City by "the obsessive guide to impulsive entertainment."

Cohn, Meredith.  "Montgomery Park's big sign goes on tonight - Reborn building to greet first tenant this summer - Innovations abound - Roof will sprout greenery and will help recycle the rain."  The Baltimore Sun (June 10, 1002): Business, 11C.  The Sun Staff writer reports on the unveiling of the old Montgomery Ward & Company catalog warehouse.  At present it is Baltimore's largest office building, and now has incorporated a greenroof as part of its overall sustainable design strategy.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Crucefix, Lanna.  "Green roofs cool for summer, environmentalist says,"  University of Toronto News@UofT (April 24, 2002). University of Toronto shares preliminary results of a study conducted showing greenroofs are better than conventional roofs for insulating homes in the winter and cooling them down in the summer.  Read what Professor Brad Bass of the Institute for Environmental Studies and a researcher for Environment Canada's Adaptation and Impacts Research Group has to report under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Daily Yomiuri Online, "Green data from Fukuoka," by Asami Nagai Daily Yomiuri Staff Writer (November 29, 2003): Features: Scene. Data gathered during 2000 at Acros Fukuoka, Japan, shows that plants are surprisingly effective at suppressing the buildup of heat--the temperature of roof garden soil in summer was on average about 15 C lower than that of an exposed concrete surface.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS.

Daily Yomiuri Online, "Pets enjoying high life on rooftops," by Yomiuri Shimbun, (September 29, 2003).  Many Japanese are looking to their rooftops for amenity greenspace specifically designed for their pets.  Read about it under NEWS LINKS.

Daily Yomiuri Online, "Putting down roots Horticultural joy and relaxation all year long," by Asami Nagai Daily Yomiuri Staff Writer (November 29, 2003): Features: Scene.  An 89-year old rooftop gardener grows plum trees and much more atop his four-story concrete building; long-term patients in urban hospitals learn about the benefits of rooftop gardens; and the Tokyo government mandates greening to to tackle the heat island problem.  See NEWS LINKS for all three stories., "Plant-covered housetops, common in Europe, are a natural addition," by Kent Steinriede (April 17, 2003).  The Delaware Online staff writer talks about homeowners in Arden, Delaware, who will have a greenroof completed this summer in the Home & Garden section of The News Journal.  Read the story on NEWS LINKS., "Grass-roof payback may be slow-growing," by Lee Rood (November 8, 2002).  The journalist examines the energy-saving properties and economic costs of the proposed Des Moines Public Library Greenroof by British architect David Chipperfield, in the Local Government section Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "'Green Roofs' hailed as money-savers," by Wendy Weiskircher (November 20, 2002).  The Register Staff Writer addresses the Des Moines Founders Club Green Roof Forum held at the Meredith Corporation on Tuesday, November 19, 2002 to almost 200 people.  People learned that greenroofs are not just aesthetically appealing and environmentally friendly, but can be sound economic investments in a community as well.  See the complete article online at NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Library cuts pricey grass roof," by Jason Clayworth (March 11, 2003): Local Government.  The Register Staff Writer relates how and why officials of the Public Library of Des Moines have, at least for the present, opted not to invest in a greenroof for the new $32.3 million structure.  Budget restraints and misinformation appear to have contributed to the decision, although the idea may be reconsidered in the future if money allows.  Read the complete story under NEWS LINKS., "Ford Rouge gets $2 billion face-lift," by R. L. King (November 1, 2000).  Read about Ford's planned River Rouge Plant greenroof project on NEWS LINKS - Archives.

DJC.COM, "'Green' Buildings," by Elizabeth Daniels (September 15, 2000).  Access the complete online article from The Seattle Daily Journal of Commerce from NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Dramstad, Wenche E., and James D. Olson, and Richard T. T. Forman.  Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and Land-Use Planning. Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Island Press and the American Society of Landscape Architects, 1996.  Pp 5,11, 12, 39, 47.  This book provides a common language for the introduction of landscape ecology, and was used as a textbook for my Fall 1999 Applied Ecology class at UGA., "Making Green Roofs Simple," by Jared Markham and Todd Walles (September/ October 2003).  The authors describe benefits of greenroofs and in particular the features and solutions of GreenGrid's modular greenroof systems.  Read about it at NEWS LINKS.

Ellis, E. G.  A Trellis for Mr. Ellis, or How I Saved the World from Global Warming.  San Diego: Allcat Press 2002.  Here is a wonderful children's story about an orphaned cat who wishes to green the world with her new owner.  Read the review under Recommended Readings.

English Nature, "Green roofs: their existing status and potential for conserving biodiversity in urban areas - Report Number 498." (July 8, 2003).  English Nature researched and put together this highly valuable reference tool about how greenroofs turn previous brownfield sites green again with biodiversity.  Access the 12-page PDF under How To's or NEWS LINKS., "Chicago hopes rooftop garden cools air," by United Press International (May 17, 2000).  Access the complete Environmental News Network article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of my website., "Green rooftop technology saves energy, cools air," by Suzanne Elston (December 31, 2000).  Access the complete article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of my website., "Porous paving, green roofs can ease impact of development on water supplies," from Associated Press, by Bill Bergstrom (June 4, 2002).  Pennsylvania development and how it relates to stormwater design concerns are are addressed here.  Access the complete article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of my website., "Ford's Rouge Plant Charts Automaking for the 21st Century," by Andrew G. Wright with Joann Gonchar (November 11, 2002).  McGraw-Hill Construction's Engineering-News Record reports on Ford's progress of their on-going plans for refurbishing the aging River Rouge Plant in Dearborn Michigan. The article states that "The $2-billion job is a template for sustainable manufacturing," and includes updates on the McDonough & Partners project and North America's largest greenroof., "Citigroup Helps Fund Green Roofs," by Environment News Service Staff (December 18, 2002).  The Environment News Service (ENS) is an international daily news wire service, and "exists to present late-breaking environmental news in a fair and balanced manner."  This article reports on how  Citigroup Foundation is working with The Earth Pledge Foundation in New York City to promote greenroofs, pledging  $25,000 to support Earth Pledge's Viridian Project, providing greenroofs on low to moderate income housing.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Environmental Building News, "A Garden Overhead: The Benefits and Challenges of Green Roofs." (November 2001, Volume 10, Number 11): 1, 10-18.  EBN is "The Leading Newsletter on Environmentally Responsible Design & Construction" and the featured article examines greenroofs.  Reach them at, "Funding for Source Water Protection Activities," (May 2003).  Read about this PDF that explores federal funding examples for various water protection activities, such as polluted runoff control, resource protection and restoration, and wastewater as well as contact information.  Access it at NEWS LINKS and under Industry Support., "Washington D.C. and Water Authority (WASA) Sewer Overflows Settlement," (June 25, 2003): Compliance and Enforcement: Civil Enforcement. Read about it under NEWS LINKS.

Erisco-Bauder Limited, Suffolk, England, April 1999.  Numerous product and service brochures describe the value and effects and technical aspects of their greenroofing system.

Erosion Control Magazine, “Natural Carpets Protect Roof and Soil.” (November/December 1998): 25-26.  This article in the Stormwater Management section describes how erosion is reduced by controlling stormwater before it even hits the ground.

Estes, Maury, personal communications, January 2000.  Maury is with NASA's Global Climate and Hydrology Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and has sent me thermal photos for my website., "Goals to sustain region announced," by Nomee Landis, August 28, 2003.  The Fayetteville Online Staff writer talks about the Cumberland region's Fort Bragg and its plans to develop and promote sustainable design, including greenroofs.  Read about it at NEWSLINKS.

Ferguson, Bruce K.  “Preventing the Problems of Urban Runoff.”  Renewable Resources Journal. (Winter 1995-96): 14-17.  This article highlights the need for true understanding of natural systems so that we may holistically design environments to maintain the health of the world.  Bruce Ferguson, FASLA, is an UGA professor of landscape architecture.

Ferguson, Bruce K.  Introduction to Stormwater:  Concept, Purpose, Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1998.  Pp. 5, 8, 13-18, 20.  This book is a detailed primer for landscape architects and site engineers, among others, interested in stormwater management and its safe and meaningful integration within urban communities and ecosystems.

Flanders, Danny C. “Taking the Heat.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (February 29, 1999): G1.  Garden centers tag plants according to their high-temperature and heat tolerance., "Lean green machine," by Joann Muller (February 3, 2003): Forbes Global: Companies & Strategies.  The author asks and answers the  question, "Should Ford Motor indulge Bill Ford's environmental agenda?  Sometimes it makes sense."  The world's largest living roof is highlighted.  Read the  article under NEWS LINKS.

ftp//, "Introductory Manual for Greening Roofs for Public Works and Government Services Canada." by Cornelia Hahn Oberlander, CM, FCSLA, FASLA; Elisabeth Whitelaw, CSLA; and Eva Matsuzaki, MAIBC, FRAIC, hon FAIA (December 13, 2003, Version 1.1).  Commissioned by Public Works and Government Services Canada in December 2001, the Canadian experts in traditional roof garden design have complied a comprehensive manual for greenroofs, both extensive and intensive.  Chapters include Potential Advantages and Benefits, Barriers, Design and Construction, Details, Sample Specifications, Suppliers Investigated, Resources, and History.  Consult the entire 37-page .pdf under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Rooftop Gardens Reduce Smog, Improve Water Quality & More!" by Abbey Duke (March 2002).  Read the online story from the Garden Activist column of the Gardener's Supply Company in NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Golley, Frank B.  A Primer for Environmental Literacy. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998.  This broad-ranging book was used for my Landscape Ecology class at UGA (1999) and presents key concepts of ecological science., "Tuscan Skies Overhead," by Linda S. Velazquez (October 6, 2003): Exclusives.  I interview people from the Carrabba's organization concerning their commitment to greening all of the restaurant chain's new rooftops with a Tuscan flair.  Read about it at NEWS LINKS., "Campaign for rooftop gardens," by Martin Wainwright (September 23, 2003): UK News.  The Guardian Unlimited reports on the first UK conference on greenroofs held by Green Roofs for Healthy Cities UK and Sheffield University.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS.

Hendriks, Nico and Jim Hooker. "The Green Roofs of Europe, February 22, 1994." Jim Hooker, of the British Flat Roofing Council (UK) and Professor Nico Hendriks of Eindhoven University (the Netherlands) presented an informative paper with six case studies to The National Roofing Contractors Association's 107th Annual Convention & Exhibit.

Holtcamp, Wendee. "A Grass-Roofs Effort - Secret Gardens Conserve Energy & Cool the Air." sierra magazine (May/June 2001): Hearth & Home.  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Holland Sentinel Online, "Library looks at roof garden," by Regan Foster (October 24, 2003): Local.  The Holland Sentinel Online Staff Writer says the Herrick District Library Board of Directors of Holland, MI, is looking at ways to make the oldest part of its library look new again, and a greenroof is among the options.  See NEWS LINKS., "`Green' roof a cool hybrid of ecology, engineering," by Kathy Huber, Copyright 2003 Houston Chronicle (November 28, 2003): Local & State.  Houston is a city known for its pollution and suffocating heat, and industry, environmentalists and even a mayoral candidate are exploring embraced greenroofs as one tool in a larger strategy to clean up the city's image and its notorious air.  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS.

Hussong, Walter and Krebs, Dr., Michael, personal communications, March, 1999.  Faxes and my personal visit to the Optima North Headquarters in Tornesch, Germany provided me with numerous photos and on site information concerning the design and installation of extensive and intensive greenroofs and knowledge of their ongoing soil, water retention and plant selection test areas.,  "Roof Greening." by Monica Kuhn (February 1996).  Ms. Kuhn specializes in roof garden design and explains the many benefits of greening roofs in an urban environment.  Read the online story from the Canadian architect in NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Johnson, Lorraine.  "Meadows Above." Landscape Architecture Magazine (August 2003):  Plants.  The author writes about member-owned Mountain Equipment Co-op, which pursued their ecological vision of a greenroof on their new facility.  Construction, design benefits, plants, and lessons learned are discussed.  Read about it at NEWS LINKS., "Symposium seeks to educate on harnessing stormwater," by Tony Cadwalader (November 13, 2003): Community News.  Two local organizations under one umbrella challenge Philadelphia area officials and citizens about water-related issues.  See NEWS LINKS.

Kim, Chang-Ran.  "Tokyo turns to rooftop gardens to beat the heat."  Reuters (July 8, 2002): Planet Ark, World Environment News,  The author interviews Kazuyoshi Kojima, a 52-year-old Tokyo public servant who is encouraging greenroof development in an effort to lower rising city temperatures.  Kojima was also instrumental in creating the new Tokyo city law requiring one fifth of a new building to be covered in green if the footprint exceeds 300 square meters (3, 230 square feet).  Read the story in NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Krakauer, Jon and David Roberts. Iceland:  Land of the Sagas. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990.  Pp. 30-31, 68-69, 134-135.  The land, history and character of the people are examined while the beautiful color photos illustrate the rugged beauty of Iceland., "Vegetación en techos de edificios reduce calentamiento de grandes ciudades," by Ricardo Acevedo Zalaquett (Ciencia y Technologia: November 24, 2002).  Written in Spanish, the Chilean journalist addresses the ever-growing implementation of greenroofs within the U.S. Canada, Japan and now Great Britain and wonders if the environmental and economic qualities of greenroofs may help mitigate some of the urban heat island and storm water problems within Santiago while reducing energy costs (

Lawrence, Mike.  Step-By-Step Guide to Outdoor Woodworking Projects.  San Francisco: 1995.  P. 54.  Decks, patios and outdoor spaces are easily designed.

Liptan, Tom, ASLA, personal communications, February and April 1999; February 2000.  Tom is a landscape architect and stormwater expert working for the city of Portland, Oregon, who constructed a greenroof on top of his garage at home.  Our telephone conversations emphasized the opportunities here in the U.S. to build greenroofs for storm water management, and he provided me with numerous industry leads and the stormwater runoff and retention monitoring techniques.

Karen Liu, Ph.D. "Going green - A National Research Council Canada evaluates green roof systems' thermal performances."  Professional Roofing Magazine (September 2002).  As leader  of the study, Dr. Liu identifies the objectives of the research project - the environmental benefits and energy efficiency of rooftop gardens - and studies the greenroof system's sensitivities to climate variability and quantifies the benefits of the technology under Canadian climatic conditions.  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Louis, Errol.  "Never Mind My Valley – How Green Is My Roof; House-Top Gardens Emerge as Goal for City’s Eco-Activists."  The New York Sun (June 3, 2002): Cover.  Mr. Louis, Staff Reporter, attended the Earth Pledge Foundation's greenroof symposium, "Greener By Design," on June 1, 2002 in New York and reports on the wide variety of professional interests present, as well as the many benefits for a city wide greenroof initiative.

Luvall, Dr., Jeffrey C., personal communications, May 1999 through May  2001.  Jeff specializes in surface energy budgets and the urban heat island effect at NASA's Marshall Space Center.  He has provided all the color and thermal imagery and specifics for measuring and analyzing thermal comparisons of greenroofs vs. conventional non-porous roofs.

Magnusson, Thor. A Showcase of Icelandic National Treasures. Reykjavik: Iceland Review, 1987.  Pp.38, 77, 83.  The three pictures found in the History section were scanned from this informative and colorful book of historical relics.

McDonough + Partners, personal communications, April, 1999.  Kevin Burke, AIA, mailed me copies of a task report prepared by their office assessing greenroof technology and manufacturers’ product literature.

McDonough, William.  "How We Can Give More Back to the Environment than We Take."  Art Papers Magazine (March/April, 2003): Feature Articles: Sustainable Design.  The online article is an edited transcript of a lecture that William McDonough gave at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Fall 2002 and the editors wish to thank Sara Riney of the Atlanta International Museum of Art and Design for her help in realizing this feature.  McDonough shares his ecological vision and discusses the Ford River Rouge Plant greenroof.

McMarlin, Robert. "Green Roofs Add Aesthetic, Practical Benefits to Building Rooftops." Western Roofing Magazine (May/June, 1996):  89-92.  Robert McMarlin is manager, product/systems evaluation and testing at Pittsburgh Corning, makers of FOAMGLASS cellular glass insulation., "Seeing Green," by Steve Trautlein (July 11, 2003):   Feature.  The editor of the most popular English-speaking magazine in Tokyo writes an extensive article on greenroofs in Japan.  Access the story at NEWS LINKS.

Metropolitan Home Magazine, "Design 100 - The Best of the Best: People, Places, Extraordinary Things." (May/June 2003): 10, 94.  The Design 100: 2003 What's Red-Hot Now issue is "an entirely subjective, indubitably opinionated list of the 100 best objects, people, places and ideas in design, architecture, food, gardening and allied realms by the editors of Metropolitan Home."  Greenroofs are listed at #24, and is referenced.

Miller, Charlie, P. E.  “Vegetated Roof Covers: A New Method for Controlling Runoff in Urbanized Areas.” publication in the Proceedings of the 1998 Pennsylvania Stormwater Management Symposium (October 21-23, 1998): 1-10.

Miller, Charlie, P. E., personal communications, February 1999, and March through May 2000. Telephone conversations, letters, photos, emails, and other materials explain vegetated roof systems and the services offered by his firm, Roofscapes, Inc.

Morrison, Darrel.  FASLA, UGA professor of landscape architecture.  Gave me a beginning list of potentially successful plants for the Piedmont region, April 1999.  UGA Applied Ecology lecture of September 1999., "Survival plan for 'urban heat islands'," by Francesca Lyman (August 14, 2002): Health: Your Environment.  The MSNBC contributor presents an in depth article on the urban heat island effect and looks at projects and measures from the cities of Chicago, Sacramento, and Atlanta.  NASA research scientist Dale Quattrochi and City of Chicago Commissioner of the Environment Marcia Jimenez are interviewed - see NEWS LINKS - Archives., "The Greening of Chicago," presented by MSNBC News, by George F. Will (August 4, 2003): Opinion: The Last Word. The Newsweek article says the City Beautiful movement is flourishing here and highlights Chicago Mayor Richard Daley and his greening efforts.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS.

Muto, Sheila.  "New York Aims to Make Roofs 'Green'."  The Wall Street Journal   (November 12, 2003).  Sheila Muto, Wall Street Journal Staff Reporter writes how government officials and environmental groups in New York are making a big push to make Gotham green - especially Earth Pledge.  See NEWS LINKS., "Project testing 'green roof' as storm water runoff solution," by Chad Gillis, (October 3, 2003).  The Naples Daily News online versions accounts the how the roof of a chemical shed at Shadow Wood Preserve in San Carlos Park, FL has been covered with about 2,400 square feet of greenroof, with construction help by Roofscapes, Inc.  The roof will be monitored for its stormwater management properties.  Access the story at NEWS LINKS., "Gardening Gurus:  Linda Velazquez," by Kathy Bond Borie (December, 2002, Vol. 1, issue 10): Better Gardener News.  The author profiles Linda Velazquez, Publisher of and her start into the world of greenroofs.  Access the National Gardening Association's website at, and read the story on NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Plant-Covered Roofs Ease Urban Heat," by Donald Dawson (November 15, 2002): National Geographic News.  The author describes how Toronto has joined the greenroof bandwagon along with the federal government and Green Roofs for Healthy Cities by announcing a $640,000 partnership program.  Tom Liptan, ASLA, of the City of Portland is also interviewed.  Read the article on NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Wal-Mart heeds 'green' critics - Store in Vancouver may include sod roof," by John Greenwood (Financial Post: July 7, 2003).  Historically, Wal-Mart is known for its "big box" non-ecological approach to architecture.  Vancouver's newest store, however, is considering a greenroof and has hired a design firm who specializes in green architecture.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS., "Green Roof Saves City," (December 2000).  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Solar House," by Editor John Wilson (ongoing).  Access the story from

New York, "It's Not Easy Selling a Green Roof, but They're Trying," by Sam Hooper Samuels (January 16, 2001).  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Bonita's rooftops going green - Gardens a growing trend to hide concrete," by Jill Tyrer, (August 24, 2003): Real Estate.  Jill Tyrer, Special to The News-Press, writes about greenroofs in the Bonita Spring, FL area.  Read about in at NEWSLINKS., "High Hopes:  New Rooftop Garden Report Offering Smog Solutions Puts City on Spot," by Wayne Roberts (News: October 31, 2002).  This article was condensed from the original. The author shares a personal volunteering effort to construct a meadow like greenroof on a seniors' home in Ward Island, and talks about  how growing private initiatives are outshining public efforts in the Toronto area.  Wayne Roberts is the Project Coordinator for the Toronto Food Policy Council, 277 Victoria St., Ste. 203, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1W2, and can be reached at Tel: 416.338.7937; Fax: 416.392.1107; E-mail:  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Developers And Architects See The Light," by Alexis Petrakis (July 1, 2003).  National Real Estate Investor Online addresses U.S. green real estate development -  barriers and incentives in general and greenroofs are mentioned as well.  Read the story at NEWS LINKS., "Aiming to Be the First Big Amenity," by Motoko Rich (November 13, 2003).  The Soltaire is dubbed "the first green residential high-rise in the country."  See NEWS LINKS., "Calhoun Adds a Gym, Labs and Studios," by Nadine Brozan (November 30, 2003): Real Estate.  The expansion of the Calhoun School was designed by the architecture firm of Fox & Fowle and includes a greenroof which will serve as a play area for the younger students and a science laboratory where plant and insect life can be seen first hand.  Read about it under NEWS LINKS.

OnlineAthens, "Growing trend: 'Green idea taking root" by Lee Shearer (October 3, 2003).  The Athens (GA) Banner-Herald online edition features UGA's Science Library and the Boyd Graduate Studies Research Center, and how it has been fitted with a test greenroof spearheaded by UGA graduate student Tim Carter.  Read about it at NEWS LINKS.

Optigrun Planungsunterlage 98/99, “Die Dachbegruner!” A 72-page manual in German describes the entire green roofing systems, including benefits, methods, soils, plants, slopes, construction details and numerous color photos.

Optima Planungs-Unterlage, “Lasst uns Dacher Professionell Begrunen!” 1997.  A 54-page greenroof system planning color catalog with all the necessary information to construct extensive and intensive greenroofs.

Oregon, "Increasingly, green overhead," by Joe Fitzgibbon, (September 15, 2003).  The Oregonian talks about ecoroofs, and how local environmentalists are urging Portlanders to consider greening their roofs.  Anthony Roy, co-founder of Ecoroofs Everywhere is quoted, along with Tom Liptan, environmental specialist with the City of Portland Bureau of Environmental Services.  Access the story in NEWS LINKS.

Osmundson, Theodore, FASLA, personal communication, April 1999.  He referred me to “Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture” for construction details, and advised me of his book,  "Roof Gardens: History, Design and Construction," published by W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1999. Read the review under Recommended Readings.

Perry, Michael D.  "Green roofs offer environmentally friendly alternative."  Plant Engineering Magazine (August 1, 2003).  The author is the principal of Building Logics, Inc. and provides key concepts and a look at greenroof development.  Read about it at NEWS LINKS.,  "Up on the Roof," by Andy Fisher (July 22, 2003). A research project under way in North Carolina State University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences has stormwater specialist Bill Hunt studying greenroofs.  Read the story online at NEWS LINKS.

Pfeffer, Stephanie. "Rooftop Sanctuary - The air up there is great for your plants...and your peace of mind."  Renew Magazine Online (June 12, 2002): City section.  Twice a year, graduate journalism students from Northwestern University's Medill Magazine Publishing Project create Renew Magazine, also available online, as part of their capstone project.  Stephanie handles market research and is associate editor.  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives, and learn more about the author under  "about us.", "How does your rooftop grow?" by Denise Cowie (March 8, 2002): Living Section.  The Philadelphia Inquirer Columnist discusses the growing greenroof movement in Philadelphia.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Raver, Anne.  "Hoping for a City Full of Farms on Rooftops."  The New York Times (August 4, 2002): Home & Garden.  The article reports on The Earth Pledge Foundation's fertile crops of veggies, herbs and flowers on their greenroof.  Leslie Hoffman, Director, shares her vision on how other New York roofs could benefit.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.

ReNatur "Ein Stuck Natur Zuruckgeholt," January 1999.  ReNatur product literature of various greenroof and other ecological services; brochures presented in German.

Reporter, "Temple gets $50,000 for horticulture plan," by Beth Cohen, Staff Writer (October 6, 2003): News: Top Stories.  Philadelphia's The Reporter online talks about how "a horticulture professor at Temple University Ambler is researching ways to double the life of an average shingle or blacktop roof, reduce its maintenance costs and prevent leaking."  Read about it at NEWS LINKS.

Reuters, "Toyota to mine eco-friendly China peat to cool roofs."  Reuters Limited (July 15, 2002): i Won Money & Investing,  Reuters reports from Tokyo that Toyota Motor Corporation plans to use the high water retention and nutritional qualities of peat as a greenroof and roof garden soil mix ingredient in some of its Japanese projects as well as offering it for sale to the U.S. and the Middle East.

Rosenblatt, Roger.  “The Man Who Wants Buildings to Love Kids.” Time Magazine (February 22, 1999): 62-65. William McDonough + Partners and their environmental design for The Gap Headquarters, including greenroofs, are given kudos.

S & S Seeds "Seed Selection Guide," 1992.  This is a  comprehensive catalog for seeds for reclamation and landscape wildflowers, grasses, native plants, trees, Shrubs and ground covers.  They also sent me a fax with a list of wildflower species appropriate for Georgia, May 1999.

Santos, Ed.  "Living Wonder." Landscape Architect & Specifier News (November 1998): 84.  The current responsible Horticulturalist at Zoo Atlanta writes about how the Conservation Action Resource Center continues to demonstrate innovative stewardship of the land.

Schepens, Beth.  "Gardens Above: Rooftop Gardens cool and beautify New York."  NYC24 (February 21, 2003): Volume III, Issue 2.  The New Media Workshop at the Columbia University School of Journalism produces NYC24.  The author addresses New York City's heat problems and highlights the Earth Pledge Foundation greenroof and their initiatives.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS.

Scholz-Barth, Katrin, personal communications, February and April, 1999 and April and May 2000.  Katrin is an environmental engineer and has designed several greenroofs, one with a slope of 45%.  She has helped me immensely with my UGA Senior Project in terms of greenroof structure and plant selection.

Scholz-Barth, Katrin.  "Green Roofs:  Stormwater Management From the Top Down." Environmental Design & Construction Home (January/February 2001).  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Seabrook, Charles.  “Scalping of the Land Makes Atlantans Hot.”  The Atlanta Constitution (February 19, 1999):A1  Satellite data show the detrimental effects of rapid clear-cutting practices affect the temperature in the metro Atlanta area., "Just picture the hanging gardens of...Sydney," by Chris Johnson ( April 28, 2003): Opinion.  Chris Johnson is the NSW Government Architect and author of the new book Greening Sydney, and gives his opinion on green architecture and greenroofs to The Sydney Morning Herald.  Garden-city idealism has been present in Sydney for almost a century, but the practice is becoming less sustainable - read about it online at NEWS LINKS., "Living Roofs," by Adrian Higgins of The Washington Post (September 13, 2003).  The Fort Worth Star Telegram reprints the August 28, 2003 story about the recently completed Yorktown Square project by Michael Perry of Building Logics.  Ed Snodgrass of Emory Knoll Farms is also quoted.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS., " Ecoroofs sprouting up everywhere in Portland," by Gillian Flaccus (State News - November 15, 2002).  The Associated Press Writer talks about Portland Oregon's growing commitment to eco or greenroofs within the cityscape: "using tax breaks and grants, the city helps pioneer the rooftop gardening movement, and introduces a new non-profit organization, Ecoroofs Everywhere.  Access the complete Salem Statesman Journal article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of the website.

Straight, "Rooftop Horticulture Coming to Saskatchewan,"  by Straight Goods Staff (February 3, 2003).  The Staff reporter writes how the Roofscapes Regina 2003 "Exploring Saskatchewan's Potential for Green Roof Research, Application & Technology," a colloquium on green roof application, research and technology, will explore Saskatchewan's potential for green roof study and applications, thus contributing to the province's preparation for an environmentally sustainable future.  Dr. Brad Bass of Environment Canada states that  "Saskatchewan has the professional expertise and a reputation to become a world leader in rooftop horticulture and agriculture."  Read the entire story under NEWS LINKS.

The Garland Company, Cleveland, Ohio, June, 1999.  Product literature and numerous greenroof material sections, including brochures regarding FAMOS and related articles pertaining to greenroofs., "Green Rooftop Keeps Building Cool, Spirits Warm - Garden Provides Place To Escape From Pressures of Day," by KMBC Staff (August 28, 2003): News.  KMBC's Donna Pitman reports the roof of CDFM Squared Architecture, off Central Street in downtown Kansas City, MO, is now a lush garden.  Read about it under NEWSLINKS.

The London Ecology Unit. Building Green: A Guide to Using Plants on Roofs, Walls and Pavements. London: Jacklyn Johnston and John Newton, 1993. Pp. 7–21, 47–72, 79–88.  Including an introduction by H. R. H. The Prince of Wales, the book describes the numerous ecological, aesthetic and economic advantages of green development in our urban settings.

Thelen, Edmund, Wilford C. Grover, and Arnold J. Holberg, and Thomas I. Haigh. Investigation of Porous Pavements for Urban Runoff Control, 11034 DUY. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1972. Pp. iii, 17, 22, 104-105.  An EPA sponsored study determines the feasibility of utilizing porous pavements for alleviating combined sewer overflow pollution and reducing design parameters of storm sewer systems., "Trust us - we're developers," by Ross Clark (October 18, 2003): Property.  The author asks, "The spectacular and historic Thames-side estate of Cliveden is to have 191 new homes built in its grounds - by its guardian, the National Trust. But should the Trust be exploiting its assets in this way?"  Brendan O'Neill of ECD Architects has proposed to create greenroofs to attract butterflies.  Read the full story under NEWS LINKS., "A splash of colour to old garages," by Star staff (October 14, 2003).  In Johannesburg, former offices and garages now house courtyards, internal roads, bridges connecting various buildings and roof terraces, and newly converted industrial lofts include roof gardens. Read about it at NEWS LINKS., "Above it all," by David Spittles, Evening Standard, (October 9, 2003): Homes & property.  Londoners are valuing the potential of roof top terraces and gardens, and developers are taking notice.  Read about it under NEWS LINKS., "Time to get airborne," by Ali Watkinson, Evening Standard, (October 9, 2003): Homes & property.  Airborne backyards have many benefits for city dwellers, and developers are enjoying the extra 20% property markup.  Access the story at NEWS LINKS.

Thompson, J. William. “Grass-Roofs Movement.” Landscape Architecture Magazine (May, 1998): 47-51.  An article under the Technology Section, the thriving eco-roof design industry in Germany and other parts of Europe is described offering many environmental benefits and asking the question: Is the time ripe to import the concept?

  Thompson, J. William.  "Land Matters."  LAND Online (June 27, 2003) from Landscape Architecture Magazine (July, 2003): 9. LAM Editor Bill Thompson's monthly editorial, land matters, addresses his visit and participation in the Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities 2003 Green Roof Conference in Chicago in May, 2003.  He muses how greenroofs have come a long way from Tom Liptan's garage, among other things.  Read the story at NEWS LINKS.

Thompson, J. William. "Meadows Above - The green-roof movement gains a foothold in North America." Landscape Architecture Magazine (September, 2000): 36-39, 125.  LAM Editor "Bill" Thompson follows up his May, 1998 article on the continued interest and promising projects in greenroof architecture., "Heroes for the Planet," by Roger Rosenblatt (February 15, 1999).  Architect William McDonough is profiled and honored with Time Magazine's award for ecological design.  Access the complete online article from NEWS LINKS - Archives., "'Ecoroof' lures urbanites, planners back to garden," by Larry Copeland (December 2, 2002).  Atlanta is under court order to improve sewer conditions in the amount of $3 billion, and Environmental Manager Benjamin Taube explains how the city has been examining greenroofs, and talks about their City Hall's upcoming 3,000 square foot project.  Ed Snodgrass, Dr. Dave Beattie, and other greenroof proponents are also quoted in the article.  Read about the City of Atlanta greenroof under Proposed Projects, and access the complete USA TODAY article from the NEWS LINKS - Archives section of the website.

Van der Ryn, Sim and Stuart Cowan. Ecological Design.  Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1996. Pp. x, 10, 18, 28, 55.  This very informative book was used as part of our Applied Ecology UGA class, Fall 1999.  Ecological design principles can be applied to help build a more efficient, less toxic, healthier, and more sustainable world.

Vick, Alfie.  UGA MLA graduate. Spoke on "Landscape Health" for my Applied Landscape Ecology lecture at UGA of September, 1999.

Wark,  Christopher G. and Wendy W.  "Specifications & Standards - Establishing an emerging technology." The Construction Specifier (August 2003).  The authors are principals of SHADE Consulting, and offer a good overview of current greenroof interest, history, description of systems and components, terminology, standards and specifications.  Read it online at NEWS LINKS., "Going Green on Top - A Living Roof System That Cuts Energy Use," by Adrian Higgins, Washington Post Staff Writer (August 28, 2003): Gardens: Page H01 Michael Perry of Building Logics discusses greenroofs and the recently completed Yorktown Square project in Falls Church, Va.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS., "Going Green to Reduce Energy," by Sandra Fleishman (November 11, 2000).   Access the complete online The Washington Post Company article from NEWS LINKS - Archives., "Needy for Green, Areas Look Skyward - Arundel, Arlington Tout Benefits of Roof Gardens," by Matthew Mosk (July 18, 2002): Page B01.  The Washington Post Staff Writer addresses two Washington  counties currently looking at greenroofs to help mitigate pollutants into area water bodies.  Read The Washington Post Company story in NEWS LINKS - Archives.

Wasowski, Sally with Andy. Gardening with Native Plants of the South.  Dallas: Taylor Publishing Company, 1994.  This beautifully color photographed book offers ecological insight into the many rewards of designing and gardening with native plants, as well as their complete descriptions and habitats, etc.

Westmacott, Richard. UGA professor of landscape architecture.  Landscape Ecology lecture of August 23, 1999.

WNYC 93.9, "Raising the Roof:  Trees and Degrees (Fahrenheit),"  June 10, 2002.  New York radio host Brian Lehrer interviewed Leslie Hoffman, Executive Director of The EarthPledge Foundation and Cathy Ho, Director of Sustainable Architecture and Design Program at EarthPledge regarding their greenroof initiative for the City of New York.  This audio file lasts approximately 18 minutes.

ZinCo International, "Landscaped Roofs in Their Most Attractive Form,"  March, 1998. ZinCo GmbH's promotional 50- page color brochure in English is extremely informative with numerous case studies, details, etc.  This San Francisco website profiles projects in the Bay area.  The Gap project was referenced here originally as /901 and was profiled for its environmental quality and design factors.  The City of Seattle's Sustainable Design PDF was used as a reference for the Seattle Justice Center case study under Current Projects.  The U.S. EPA's Yosemite website posted an article (October 8, 2002) that shows how "rooftop gardens help fight the urban heat island effect while reducing energy costs and beautifying cities."  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives.  NASA’s daily Space Science News website from the Marshall Space Flight Center highlighted two articles on “Hot’lanta” and Salt Lake City.  I downloaded their hot and cold image of SLC. staff wrote the Social Design Notes: Green Roofs article (September 23, 2002).  Linda S. Velazquez of was interviewed and the article also includes excerpts from writings by Katrin Scholz-Barth and from Green Roofs for Healthy Cities.  Cooperativa Agricola Sviluppo Piemonte, in association with Optigrun and Arboriculture On-line, has a website in Italian discussing nature’s role in safeguarding the built environment through the use of greenroofs. “CNN interactive’s” website has an article titled “Team probes Atlanta heat island,” posted on March 24, 1999.  The Ecological Factory designed by ECOVER, an ecological product manufacturer in Belgium, is discussed in detail regarding building to minimize the burden on the environment and designing with organic architecture.  I downloaded a picture of their 5,000 square meter grass roof.  The Northern Virginia Soil and Water Conservation District publishes a bi-monthly "Conservation Currents" under the Environment section of the Fairfax County, VA website.  The May/June 2003 issue contains the article "Stormwater Management...on the Roof," and it is listed under NEWS LINKS, and talks about a condominium greenroof designed and installed by Building Logics, Inc.  The Garland Company’s website offers a complete description of their products and services, and has informative “green” website links. NASA’s Global Hydrology and Climate Center website headquartered in Huntsville, Alabama, discusses their urban heat island studies of several rapidly growing U.S. cities, including Atlanta.  I downloaded their ATLAS thermal image of downtown Atlanta.  Tetto Verde s.r.l., the Italian franchise of Zinco, offers the complete philosophy and product line, as well as many related greenroof garden subjects, in Italian.  American Hydrotech, Inc.’s home page describes its waterproofing and roofing membranes used for garden roofs and discusses the many environmental and economic reasons to build a greenroof. They worked on the Gap project, among many others.  Publisher Nima Maleki examines greenroofs as part of urban vitality.  Read the October 2002 article under NEWS LINKS - Archives.  William McDonough + Partners’ website offers descriptions of their services, projects and pictures, and associates.  /grhcc.  This is the very informative website for the Green Roofs for Healthy Cities established under the leadership of Peck & Associates "to promote the more rapid diffusion of green roof technologies in Canada."  ReNatur’s website in either English or German describes their many ecological services, including complete greenroof systems.  The Penn State Online Encyclopedia article by Nancy Marie Brown (May 2001, Volume 22, Issue 2) describes Dr. David Beattie's first encounters with German greenroofs and his plans for greenroof research and testing at Penn State.  Read the story under NEWS LINKS - Archives, and the completed project under North American Case Studies.  Green technology for the urban environment is examined in Roofscapes Inc.’s very informative and interesting website containing useful graphs, charts, and color pictures. Zinco's website in German or English discusses greenroof success through an ecological sense of responsibility.  It contains informative pictures and greenroof system details.

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